Daily Archives: February 4, 2017

4–9 February 1982

Sikorsky S-76A
Sikorsky S-76A (Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company)

4–9 February 1982: Sikorsky test pilots Nicholas D. Lappos,  Byron Graham, Jr., David R. Wright, and Thomas F. Doyle, Jr., set a series of Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) speed, time-to-climb and sustained altitude world records while flying a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter, serial number 760178, FAA registration N5445J, at Palm Beach, Florida.

On 4 February, Nick Lappos, who had made the first flight with the prototype S-76, set a record of 208.470 miles per hour (335.50 kilometers per hour) over a 3-kilometer course, and 212.888 miles per hour (342.61 kilometers per hour) over a straight 15/25 kilometer course.

On 5 February, Byron Graham, Jr., flew the S-76A to 3,000 meters (9,842.52 feet) in 3 minutes, 11 seconds; to 6,000 meters (19,685.04 feet) in 8 minutes, 37.3 seconds; and a sustained altitude of 7,940 meters (26,049.87 feet) in level flight.

On 6 February David R. Wright averaged 205.881 miles per hour (331.22 kilometers per hour) over a 100 kilometer closed circuit without payload (Class E1d), and 207.967 miles per hour (334.69 kilometers per hour) over a closed circuit of 100 kilometers without payload (Class E1e).

After taking a day off, the Sikorsky S-76A was back in the air on 8 February, this time with Thomas F. Doyle, Jr., flying the helicopter over the 500 kilometer closed circuit without payload. The Sikorsky averaged 214.833 miles per hour (345.74 kilometers per hour).

On the last day of the series, 9 February 1982, David R. Wright was back in the cockpit of N5445J. Flying the 1,000 kilometer closed circuit without payload, the S-76A averaged 189.580 miles per hour (305.10 kilometers per hour).

After 34 years, these six Fédération Aéronautique Internationale world records still stand.

N5445J was owned by Rodgers Helicopter Service, Kearney, Nebraska, until it’s U.S. registration was cancelled, 10 July 2006.

Fire-damaged Sikorsky S-76A serial number 760178, registration PR-IME, at Macae Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 29 December 2008.
Fire-damaged Sikorsky S-76A, serial number 760178, registration PR-IME, at Macaé Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 29 December 2008.

The record-setting helicopter eventually found its way to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Owned and operated by Atlas Taxi Aereo, 760178 had been re-registered as PR-IME and was transporting Petrobras employees to offshore oil production platforms. At approximately 8:30 a.m., 29 December 2008, PR-IME had departed Macaé Airport enroute Platform P-12 in the Campos Basin with 7 persons on board. Shortly after takeoff, the flight crew observed an AC generator caution light and returned to the airport. Before landing, a fire warning light also illuminated. Upon landing on Runway 24, all seven escaped from the burning helicopter without injury. The fire was quickly extinguished, but the Sikorsky S-76A was substantially damaged.

FAI Record File Num #1261 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a straight 15/25 km course
Performance: 342.61 km/h
Date: 1982-02-04
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Nicholas D. Lappos (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1262 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a 3 km course
Performance: 335.50 km/h
Date: 1982-02-04
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Nicholas D. Lappos (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1819 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – superseded since approved
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Time to climb to a height of 3 000 m
Performance: 3 min 11 sec
Date: 1982-02-05
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Byron Graham Jr. (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1821 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – superseded since approved
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Time to climb to a height of 6 000 m
Performance: 8 min 37.3 sec
Date: 1982-02-05
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Byron Graham Jr. (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #9947 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Altitude in horizontal flight
Performance: 7 940 m
Date: 1982-02-05
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Byron Graham Jr. (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1264 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1d (Helicopters: take off weight 1750 to 3000 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a closed circuit of 100 km without payload
Performance: 331.22 km/h
Date: 1982-02-06
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant David R. Wright (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1265 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1e (Helicopters: take off weight 3000 to 4500 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a closed circuit of 100 km without payload
Performance: 334.69 km/h
Date: 1982-02-06
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant David R. Wright (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1845 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1e (Helicopters: take off weight 3000 to 4500 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a closed circuit of 500 km without payload
Performance: 345.74 km/h
Date: 1982-02-08
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant Thomas F. Doyle Jr. (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

FAI Record File Num #1827 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1e (Helicopters: take off weight 3000 to 4500 kg)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Speed over a closed circuit of 1 000 km without payload
Performance: 305.10 km/h
Date: 1982-02-09
Course/Location: Palm Beach, FL (USA)
Claimant David R. Wright (USA)
Rotorcraft: Sikorsky S-76 A (N5445J)
Engines: 2 Allison 250-C30

Cutaway illustration of a Sikorsky S-76A. (Sikorsky Archives)
Cutaway illustration of a Sikorsky S-76A. (Sikorsky Archives)

The Sikorsky S-76A is a twin-engine intermediate class helicopter that can be configured to carry 6 to 12 passengers. It is used as an executive transport, a scheduled passenger airliner, utility transport, and search and rescue aircraft. The helicopter is certified for instrument flight and has retractable tricycle landing gear.

The prototype was rolled out at Stratford, Connecticut on 11 January 1977 and the first flight took place on 13 March. It was certified in 1978 and the first production aircraft was delivered to Air Logistics, 27 February 1979.

A 1980 Sikorsky S-76A, N22342, operated by petroleum Helicopters, Inc. (PHI). This helicopter was deregistered in 2009. (Unattributed)
A 1980 Sikorsky S-76A, N22342, operated by petroleum Helicopters, Inc. (PHI). This helicopter was deregistered in 2009. (Unattributed)

The S-76A is 52 feet, 6 inches (16.00 meters) long with rotors turning. The fuselage has a length of 43 feet, 4.43 inches (13.219 meters) and a width of 8 feet (2.44 meters).  The helicopter’s overall height is 14 feet, 5.8 inches (4.414 meters). The four bladed composite main rotor is 44 feet (13.41 meters) in diameter. The blades are attached to a one-piece forged aluminum hub and use elastomeric bearings. As is customary with American helicopters, the main rotor turns counter-clockwise as seen from above. (The advancing blade is on the right.) The four-bladed tail rotor has a diameter of 8 feet (2.438 meters) and turns clockwise as seen from the helicopter’s left. It is mounted in a pusher configuration on the left side of the tailboom. The tail rotor is constructed of composite airfoils mounted to graphite spars.

The S-76A was equipped with two Allison 250-C30 turboshaft engines rated at 557 shaft horsepower, each. Subsequent variants have been built with Turbomeca Arriel 1S and 2S engines, as well as Pratt and Whitney PT6B-3A and PW210S engines with up to 1,077 shaft horsepower, each.

The S-76 has an empty weight of 7,007 pounds (3,178 kilograms). The S-76A maximum gross weight was 10,500 pounds (4,763 kilograms). Beginning with the S-67B, this was increased to 11,700 pounds (5,307 kilograms).

The Sikorsky S-76 has a maximum cruise speed of 155 knots (287 kilometers per hour). It can hover in ground effect (HIGE) at 7,050 feet (2,149 meters) or out of ground effect (HOGE) at 3,300 feet (1,006 meters). The service ceiling is 13,800 feet (4,206 meters).

The helicopter was designed with offshore oil support as a major consideration. It was intended to carry 2 pilots and 12 passengers 400 nautical miles. Maximum range with no reserve is 411 nautical miles (762 kilometers).

Sikorsky built 307 S-76As. More than 1,000 of all variants have been built. The current production model is the S-76D.

Air Logistics accepted teh first Sikorsky S-76A production helicopter 27 February 1979. (Sikorsky)
Air Logistics accepted the first Sikorsky S-76A production helicopter 27 February 1979. (Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company)

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes

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4 February 1982

An Aeroflot Mil Mi-26 at Farnborough, 1984.
An Aeroflot Mil Mi-26 at Farnborough, 1984.

2–4 February 1982: Over a three-day period, several flight crews set a series of Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) payload-to-altitude world records at Podmoskovnoe. They flew an OKB Mil Design Bureau Mi-26 heavy lift helicopter.

On 4 February, Colonel Sergey V. Petrov and A. Chetverik lifted 15,000 kilograms (33,069.4 pounds) to 5,600 meters (18,373 feet). On the same day, A. Kholoupov flew the helicopter to 4,600 meters (15,092 feet) with a payload of 20,000 kilograms(44,092.5 pounds).

FAI Record File Num #9904 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1 (Helicopters)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Altitude with 15 000 kg payload
Performance: 5 600 m
Date: 1982-02-04
Course/Location: Podmoskovnoe (USSR)
Claimant S. Petrov (URS)
Crew A. CHETVERIK
Rotorcraft: MIL Mi-26
Engines: 2 Lotarev D-136

FAI Record File Num #9906 [Direct Link]
Status: ratified – current record
Region: World
Class: E (Rotorcraft)
Sub-Class: E-1 (Helicopters)
Category: General
Group: 2 : turbine
Type of record: Altitude with 20 000 kg payload
Performance: 4 600 m
Date: 1982-02-04
Course/Location: Podmoskovnoe (USSR)
Claimant A. Kholoupov (URS)
Rotorcraft: MIL Mi-26
Engines: 2 Lotarev D-136

The Mil Mi-26 (NATO code name: Halo) first flew on 25 October 1977. It is a twin-engine heavy-lift helicopter, normally operated by a flight crew of five, and can carry up to 90 passengers.

The Mi-26 is 40.025 meters (131 feet, 3¾ inches) long, with all rotors turning, and has a height of 8.145 meters (26 feet, 8¾ inches). The eight-bladed main rotor has a diameter of 32.00 meters (105 feet) and turns clockwise, as seen from above. (The advancing blade is on the left.) A five-bladed tail rotor is mounted on a pylon, to the right side of the aircraft, in a tractor configuration. It turns clockwise, as seen from the helicopter’s left.

The helicopter has an empty weight of 28,200 kilograms (62,170 pounds), gross weight of 49,600 kilograms (109,350 pounds) and maximum weight of 56,000 kilograms (123,450 pounds). The fuel capacity is 12,000 liters (3,200 gallons).

The Mi-26 is powered by two Lotarev D-136 turboshaft engines which are rated at 8,500 kW (11,299 shaft horsepower), each. It’s cruise speed is 255 kilometers per hour (158 miles per hour) and the maximum speed is 296 kilometers per hour (183 miles per hour). Range is 620 kilometers (385 miles). The service ceiling is 4,500 meters (14,765 feet).

320 Mil Mi-26 helicopters have been built.

Sergey Petrov
Colonel Sergey V. Petrov

Colonel Sergey V. Petrov, Ph.D., was born at Tsaritsin (now, Volgograd), 15 October 1923. He graduated from the Air Force Special School at Stalingrad in 1941. In 1942, 7th VASHPOL, and 1943, Krasnodar WOW. From 1943to 1946, Petrov was a flight instructor for the 6th Aviation Regiment and then an instructor at Stalingrad Military Aviation College. In 1954, Petrov graduated from the N.E. Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy.

From 1953 to 1984, Colonel Petrov was a test pilot at the Gosudarstvenny Krasnoznamyonnyy Air Force Scientific Research Institute. He flew the Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-19SU rocket-boosted high-altitude interceptor and the MiG 21F, the L-29 Delfin jet trainer, as well as gliders and competition sail planes. Switching to helicopters, he tested the Mil Mi-6 PZh fire-fighting helicopter, Mi-24 “Hind” attack helicopter and the Mi-26. He investigated Vortex Ring State in the Mi-8 and low-altitude autorotations in the Mi-2, Mi-4 and Mi-8. He also flew the aerobatic Yakovlev Yak-18P, the Yak-25 interceptor, the Antonov Ant-2, An-12, An-26 and Ilyushin Il-76 transports.

In 1976, Sergey Petrov was awarded the Lenin Prize, one of the the Soviet Union’s most prestigious honors.

Retiring from flight status in 1984, Colonel Petrov continued to work as an engineer at OKB Mil Design.

Sergey V. Petrov died 14 December 1998 at the age of 75 years. He had been awarded the order of the Red Banner of Labor, and twice the Order of the Red Star. He was an Honored Test Pilot of the Soviet Union.

© 2016, Bryan R. Swopes

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4 February 1969

North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie 62-0001. (U.S. Air Force)

4 February 1969: The North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie, 62-0001, made its very last flight from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA Research Test Pilot Fitzhugh L. Fulton, Jr., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired), and Lieutenant Colonel Emil Sturmthal, U.S. Air Force, were the flight crew for this final flight.

On arrival at Wright-Patterson, Fulton closed out the log book and handed it over to the curator of the National Museum of the United States Air Force.

The Mach 3+ prototype strategic bomber and high-speed, high-altitude research airplane had completed 83 flights for a total of 160 hours, 16 minutes of flight time.

Lieutenant Colonel Emil Sturmthal, USAF and Fitzhugh Fulton, NASA, with the North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA 62-0001 at Edwards AFB, California. (Chris Walmsley/Rockwell International)
Lieutenant Colonel Emil Sturmthal, USAF and Fitzhugh Fulton, NASA, with the North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA 62-0001 at Edwards AFB, California. (Chris Walmsley/Rockwell International)

62-0001 was the first of three prototype Mach 3+ strategic bombers. (The third prototype, XB-70B 62-0208, was not completed.) The Valkyrie utilized the most advanced technology available. Materials and manufacturing techniques had to be developed specifically to build this airplane. It is a large delta wing airplane with a forward canard and two vertical fins. The outer 20 feet (6.096 meters) of each wing could be lowered to a 25° or 65° angle for high speed flight. Although this did provide additional directional stability, it actually helped increase the compression lift, which supported up to 35% of the airplane’s weight in flight.

The XB-70A is 185 feet, 10 inches (56.642 meters) long with a wingspan of 105 feet (32.004 meters) and overall height of 30 feet, 9 inches (9.373 meters). Fully loaded, the Valkyrie weighs 534,700 pounds (242,535 kilograms).

It is powered by six General Electric YJ93-GE-3 turbojet engines which were rated at 22,000 pounds of thrust (97.86 kilonewtons) at Sea Level, and 31,000 pounds (137.89 kilonewtons) with afterburner. The J93 was a single-shaft axial-flow turbojet with an 11-stage compressor section and two-stage turbine. It was 235.0 inches (5.969 meters) long, 55.0 inches (1.397 meters) in diameter, and weighed 4,770 pounds (2,164 kilograms).

The maximum speed achieved was Mach 3.1 (2,056 miles per hour, or 3,308.8 kilometers per hour) at 73,000 feet (22,250 meters). The service ceiling is 73,350 feet (23,357 meters).

The second Valkyrie, XB-70A-2-NA 62-0207, was destroyed when it crashed after a mid-air collision with a Lockheed F-104N Starfighter flown by NASA Chief Research Test Pilot Joseph A. Walker, 8 June 1966. Both Walker and the B-70’s co-pilot, Major Carl S. Cross, U.S. Air force, were killed.

XB-70A Valkyrie 62-0001 is in the collection of the National Museum of the United States Air Force.

North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie 62-0001 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. (U.S. Air Force)
North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie 62-0001 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. (U.S. Air Force)
 North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie 62-0001 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. This photograph shows the twelve elevons that act as elevators, flaps and ailerons, the swiveling action of the vertical fins, open drag chute doors and the variable exhaust outlets. (U.S. Air Force).
North American Aviation XB-70A-1-NA Valkyrie 62-0001 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. This photograph shows the twelve elevons that act as elevators, flaps and ailerons, the swiveling action of the vertical fins, open drag chute doors and the variable exhaust outlets. (U.S. Air Force).

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes

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4 February 1902–26 August 1974

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902–1974)
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902–1974)
Second Lieutenant Charles A. Lindbergh

4 February 1902: Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Brigadier General, United States Air Force, Medal of Honor, was born at Detroit, Michigan.

Certainly one of the world’s best known pilots, Lindbergh began flight training at the age of 20. In 1924 he was sent to San Antonio, Texas for a year of training at the United States Army flight schools at Brooks and Kelly Fields. He graduated at the top of his class, 5 March 1925, and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Service Reserve. He then became an Air Mail pilot and gained valuable flight experience.

On 20 May 1927, Lindbergh departed New York in his custom-built Ryan NYP monoplane, Spirit of St. Louis, and 33 hours, 30 minutes later, he landed at Paris, France, becoming the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Charles A. Lindbergh with the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis at Roosevelt Field, New York, 20 May 1927.
Charles A. Lindbergh with the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis at Roosevelt Field, New York, 20 May 1927.

When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh was presented the Distinguished Flying Cross by President Coolidge. On 14 December 1927, by Act of Congress, Lindbergh was awarded the Medal of Honor: “For displaying heroic courage and skill as a navigator, at the risk of his life, by his nonstop flight in his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, from New York City to Paris, France, 20–21 May 1927, by which Capt. Lindbergh not only achieved the greatest individual triumph of any American citizen but demonstrated that travel across the ocean by aircraft was possible.”

In the late 1930s, as a colonel in the Army Air Corps, he had various assignments, including evaluating new aircraft at Wright Field.

Charles A. Lindbergh with a Chance Vought F4U-1 Corsair at Emirau Island in the Bismarck Archipelago, May 1944. (U.S. Navy)

During World War II, Lindbergh served as a civilian adviser and flew the Chance-Vought F4U Corsair in combat missions with Marine fighter squadrons VMF-216 and VMF-222. He also flew the Lockheed P-38 Lightning with the Army Air Force 433rd Fighter Squadron, 475th Fighter Group.

Charles A. Lindbergh with a Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Biak, New Guinea, July 1944. (U.S. Air Force)

In 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower reactivated his Army Air Corps service and appointed him Brigadier General, United States Air Force.

Charles Lindbergh died on Maui, Hawaii, 26 August 1974.

Charles Augustus Lindbergh's Medal of Honor at the Missouri History Museum, St. Louis, Missouri. (Robert Lawton)
Charles Augustus Lindbergh’s Medal of Honor at the Missouri History Museum, St. Louis, Missouri. (Robert Lawton)

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes

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