Daily Archives: November 6, 2017

6 November 1958

Bell X-1E 46-063 on Rogers Dry Lake. (NASA)
Bell X-1E 46-063 on Rogers Dry Lake, 1955. (NASA)

6 November 1958: NASA Research Test Pilot John B. (Jack) McKay made the final flight of the X-1 rocketplane program, which had begun twelve years earlier.

Bell X-1E 46-063 made its 26th and final flight after being dropped from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress over Edwards Air Force Base on a flight to test a new rocket fuel.

John B. McKay, NACA/NASA Research Test Pilot. (NASA)
John B. McKay, NACA/NASA Research Test Pilot. (NASA)

When the aircraft was inspected after the flight, a crack was found in a structural bulkhead. A decision was made to retire the X-1E and the flight test program was ended.

The X-1E had been modified from the third XS-1, 46-063. It used a thinner wing and had an improved fuel system. The most obvious visible difference is the cockpit, which was changed to provide for an ejection seat. Hundreds of sensors were built into the aircraft’s surfaces to measure air pressure and temperature.

The Bell X-1E was 31 feet (9.449 meters) long, with a wingspan of 22 feet, 10 inches (6.960 meters). The rocketplane’s empty weight was 6,850 pounds (3,107 kilograms) and fully loaded, it weighed 14,750 pounds (6,690 kilograms). The rocketplane was powered by a Reaction Motors XLR11-RM-5 rocket engine which produced 6,000 pounds of thrust (26.689 kilonewtons). The engine burned ethyl alcohol and liquid oxygen. The X-1E carried enough propellants for 4 minutes, 45 seconds burn.

The Bell X-1E rocketplane being loaded into a Boeing B-29 Superfortress mothership for another test flight. (NASA)
The Bell X-1E rocketplane being loaded into NACA 800, a Boeing B-29-96-BW Superfortress mothership, 45-21800, for another test flight. (NASA)

The early aircraft, the XS-1 (later redesignated X-1), which U.S. Air Force test pilot Charles E. (“Chuck”) Yeager flew faster than sound on 1 October 1947, were intended to explore flight in the high subsonic and low supersonic range. There were three X-1 rocketplanes. Yeager’s Glamorous Glennis was 46-062. The X-1D (which was destroyed in an accidental explosion after a single glide flight) and the X-1E were built to investigate the effects of frictional aerodynamic heating in the higher supersonic ranges from Mach 1 to Mach 2.

Bell X-1E loaded aboard Boeing B-29 Superfortress, circa 1955. (NASA)
Bell X-1E 46-063 loaded aboard NACA 800, a Boeing B-29-96-BW Superfortress, 45-21800, circa 1955. (NASA)

The X-1E reached its fastest speed with NASA test pilot Joseph Albert Walker, at Mach 2.24 (1,450 miles per hour/2,334 kilometers per hour), 8 October 1957. Walker also flew it to its peak altitude, 70,046 feet (21,350 meters) on 14 May 1958.

NACA test pilot Joseph Albert Walker made 21 of the X-1E's 26 flights. In this photograph, Joe Walker is wearing a David Clark Co. T-1 capstan-type partial-pressure suit with a K-1 helmet for protection at high altitudes. (NASA)
NACA test pilot Joseph Albert Walker made 21 of the X-1E’s 26 flights. In this photograph, Joe Walker is wearing a David Clark Co. T-1 capstan-type partial-pressure suit with a K-1 helmet for protection at high altitudes. (NASA)

There were a total of 236 flights made by the X-1, X-1A, X-1B, X-1D and X-1E. The X-1 program was sponsored by the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, NACA, which became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, on 29 June 1958.

The X-1E is on display in front of the NASA administration building at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California.Bell X-1E 46-063 on display at Dryden Flight Research Center© 2016, Bryan R. Swopes

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6 November 1935

K5083, the prototype Hawker Hurricane, photographed prior to its first flight. Photograph ©IWM (MH 5475)
K5083, the prototype Hawker Hurricane, photographed prior to its first flight. Photograph © IWM (MH 5475)

6 November 1935: The prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083, first flew at the Brooklands airfield, Weybridge, Surrey, with test pilot Flight Lieutenant P.W.S. (“George”) Bulman (later Group Captain Paul Ward Spencer Bulman, CBE, MC, AFC and Bar).

Designed by Sydney Camm to meet a Royal Air Force Specification for a high speed monoplane interceptor, the airplane was designed around the Rolls-Royce PV-12 engine. (“PV” stood for Private Venture.)

Sir Sydney Camm, CBE, FRAeS
Sydney Camm, CBE, FRAeS (1893–1966)

The Hurricane was built in the traditional means of a light but strong framework covered by doped linen fabric. Rather than wood, however, the Hurricane’s framework used high strength steel tubing for the aft fuselage. A girder structure covered in sheet metal made up the forward fuselage. A primary consideration of the fighter’s designer was to provide good visibility for the pilot. The cockpit sits high in the fuselage and gives the airplane its characteristic hump back profile. The cockpit was enclosed by a sliding canopy. The landing gear was retractable.

Right Profile of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083. (© IWM-MH-5190)
Right Profile of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083. © IWM (MH-5190)
Left profile (IWM)
Left profile of K5083. © IWM (ATP 8654D)

The Rolls-Royce PV-12 was a developmental liquid-cooled 1,649-cubic-inch-displacement (27.022 liter) 60° V-12 that would become the legendary Merlin aircraft engine. The PV-12 first ran in 1933 and initially produced 700 horsepower. The engine was progressively improved and by the time the Hurricane prototype first flew, it was equipped with a supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin C, Air Ministry serial number 111144, which had a Normal Power rating of 1,029 horsepower at 2,600 r.p.m, at an altitude of 11,000 feet (3,353 meters), with +6 pounds per square inch boost. The V-12 engine turned a Watts two-bladed fixed-pitch wooden propeller through a gear reduction drive (possibly 0.420:1).

Right profile of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083. Photograph © IWM (MH 5190)
Right quarter view of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083. Photograph © IWM (MH 5190)

In early flight testing, K5083 reached 315 miles per hour (507 kilometers per hour) at 16,200 feet (4,938 meters), with the V-12 turning 2,960 r.p.m. and +6 pounds per square inch (0.414 Bar) of boost. The speed exceeded the RAF’s requirement by 5 miles per hour. The prototype was able to take off in as little as 795 feet (242 meters) and to climb to 15,000 feet (4,572 meters) in just 5 minutes, 42 seconds. It reached 20,000 feet (6,096 meters) in 8 minutes, 24 seconds. The prototype’s service ceiling was 34,500 feet (10,516 meters). The estimated absolute ceiling was 35,400 feet (10,790 meters)

Test pilot George Bulman in the cockpit of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083, circa 1935.
Test pilot George Bulman in the cockpit of the prototype Hawker Hurricane, K5083, circa 1935.

The Hawker Hurricane Mk.I was ordered into production in the summer of 1936. The first production airplane flew on 12 October 1937. The Hurricane Mk. I retained the wooden fixed-pitch propeller and fabric-covered wings of the prototype, though this would change with subsequent models. It was 31 feet, 5 inches (9.576 meters) long with a wingspan of 40 feet, 0 inches (12.192 meters), and overall height of 10 feet, 6 inches (3.200 meters). Its empty weight was 5,234 pounds (2,374 kilograms) and maximum gross weight was 6,793 pounds (3,081 kilograms).

The Hurricane Mk.I was powered by a Rolls-Royce Merlin Mk.II or Mk.III. The Mk.III was rated at 1,030 horsepower at 3,000 r.p.m. at 16,250 feet (4,953 meters).

The Mk.I’s best economical cruising speed was 212 miles per hour (341 kilometers per hour) at 20,000 feet (6,096 meters), and its maximum speed was 316 miles per hour (509 kilometers per hour) at 17,750 feet (5,410 meters) and 6,440 pounds (2,921 kilograms). The airplane’s range was 585 miles (941 kilometers). The Hurricane Mk.I could climb to 20,000 feet in 9.7 minutes.

The fighter was armed with eight Browning .303 Mark II machine guns mounted in the wings, with 334 rounds of ammunition per gun.

Pilot Officer A.V. "Taffy" Clowes with his Hawker Hurricane Mk.I, P3395, of No. 1 Squadron, RAF, in a revetment at RAF Wittering, Huntingdonshire, October 1940. (S.A. Devon, Royal Air Force)
Pilot Officer A.V. “Taffy” Clowes with his Hawker Hurricane Mk.I, P3395, of No. 1 Squadron, RAF, in a revetment at RAF Wittering, Huntingdonshire, October 1940. Photograph by S.A. Devon, Royal Air Force. © IWM (CH 17331)

Peter Townsend described the Hurricane in his book, Duel of Eagles:

“. . . By December [1938] we had our full initial equipment of sixteen aircraft. The Fury had been a delightful play-thing; the Hurricane was a thoroughly war-like machine, rock solid as a platform for eight Browning machine-guns, highly manoeuvrable despite its large proportions and with an excellent view from the cockpit. The Hurricane lacked the speed and glamour of the Spitfire and was slower than the Me. 109, whose pilots were to develop contempt for it and a snobbish preference for being shot down by Spitfires. But figures were to prove that during the Battle of Britain, machine for machine, the Hurricane would acquit itself every bit as well as the Spitfire and in the aggregate (there were more than three Hurricanes to two Spitfires) do greater damage among the Luftwaffe.”

Duel of Eagles, Group Captain Peter Wooldridge Townsend, CVO, DSO, DFC and Bar, RAF. Cassell Publishers Limited, London, Chapter 13 at Pages 153–154. 

At the beginning of World War II, 497 Hurricanes had been delivered to the Royal Air Force, enough to equip 18 squadrons. During the Battle of Britain, the Hurricane accounted for 55% of all enemy aircraft destroyed. Continuously upgraded throughout the war, it remained in production until 1944. A total of 14,503 were built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., Gloster Aircraft Company, and the Canadian Car and Foundry Company.

Royal Air Force Hawker Hurricane IIc KF363. This airplane has been in continuous service with the RAF since it was built by Hawker in January 1944. It is currently undergoing major servicing at teh RAF Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, of which it was a founding aircraft in 1959. (Royal Air Force)
Royal Air Force Hawker Hurricane IIc LF363. This airplane has been in continuous service with the RAF since it was built by Hawker in January 1944. It is currently undergoing major servicing at the RAF Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, of which it was a founding aircraft in 1959. (Royal Air Force)

NOTE: While researching a question by reader Drew Mercer, I came across some additional photographs of “Taffy” Clowes and his Hawker Hurricane, so I thought I would add them. P3395 has a bee painted on its engine cowling. Each time Taffy shot down an enemy airplane, he added a stripe.

Taffy Clowes' Hawker Hurricane preparred for the next sortie.
Taffy Clowes’ Hawker Hurricane Mk.I, P3395, prepared for the next sortie. As improved Hurricanes entered service, P3395 was relegated to training duties. It was destroyed 24 March 1942. (Unattributed)
Pilot Officer A.V. "Taffy" Clowes, Royal Air Force.
Squadron Leader Arthur Victor Clowes, DFC, DFM, Royal Air Force, with his Hawker Hurricane, October 1940. Officially credited with 11 victories. © IWM (CH 1570)

© 2016, Bryan R. Swopes

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