Daily Archives: November 9, 2019

Medal of Honor: Captain Lance Peter Sijan, United States Air Force

1st Lieutenant Lance Peter Sijan, United States Air Force, with a McDonnell F-4C Phantom II. (U.S. Air Force/Milwaukee Independent)

9 November 1967: First Lieutenant Lance Peter Sijan, United States Air Force, was assigned as the Weapons System Officer of AWOL 01, a McDonnell F-4C-23-MC Phantom II, serial number 64-0751. The aircraft commander was Lieutenant Colonel John William Armstrong (USMA ’49), commanding officer of the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron.

AWOL 01 was the lead ship of a two-aircraft strike against the Ho Chi Minh Trail where it crossed a small river at Ban Loboy, Laos. The flight departed Da Nang Air Base at 2000 hours. At 2045 hours, AWOL 01 was making a second low pass over the target when it was enveloped in a ball of fire. The Phantom entered a steep climb, reaching approximately 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), then nosed over and plunged straight into the ground. (Sources vary, stating that 64-0751 had been hit by ground fire, a surface-to-air-missile, or that its bombs had detonated prematurely immediately after release.)

The red X shows the location where AWOL 01 was lost, just southwest of the Laos/Vietnam border. (Together We Served)

Lieutenant Sijan was able to eject. It is not known if Colonel Armstrong was able to escape the doomed fighter. He was not seen or heard from again.

Sijan was severely injured, suffering a fractured skull, a broken right wrist and injured hand, and a compound fracture of his left leg. For two days, he lapsed in and out of consciousness. Then on 11 November, he was able to make radio contact with fighters overhead.

Lockheed HC-130P Combat King refuels a Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant with Douglas A-1E and A-1H Skyraiders, SEA 1968. (U.S. Air Force)

A rescue operation was mounted, eventually involving more than 100 aircraft. Nine aircraft were damaged by enemy ground fire, and another, a Douglas A-1 Skyrader, was shot down. (It’s pilot was rescued.) An Air Force rescue helicopter, a Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant, call sign JOLLY GREEN 15, was in radio contact with Sijan and located his approximate position. Sijan reported that he the helicopter in sight and requested that they hold their position and lower the jungle penetrator. Sijan said that he would crawl to it, and specifically said that they should not insert a pararescueman because enemy soldiers were in the immediate area. The helicopter held the hover over the triple canopy jungle for 33 minutes but never saw the injured pilot. He was not heard from again. Eventually, the rescue operation was called off.

Lance Sijan moved through the jungle by crawling. He was able to evade capture for six weeks before, unconscious, he was found by North Vietnamese soldiers. Taken to a camp near the Ban Karai Pass,

     Sijan waited until a single soldier was left to guard him. He lured the guard close, then overcame him and rendered him unconscious with a left-handed chop to the base of the skull. He tied the guard’s shirt around his swollen leg, took his carbine, and crawled into the jungle.

     He was recaptured within half a day.

—”The Courage of Lance Sijan,” by John T. Correll, AIR FORCE Magazine, July 2004, Page 54

Sijan was eventually take to the Hỏa Lò Prison—the infamous Hanoi Hilton. He had never received medical treatment for his injuries. During his ordeal he lost more than 100 pounds (45 kilograms). He was subject to interrogation, torture and isolation. He was very ill and by mid-January was suffering from pneumonia. His captors removed him from his cell on 18 January 1968. He was not seen by his fellow prisoners of war after that date. It was reported that he died on 22 January 1968. Lance Peter Sijan was just 25 years old.
Medal of Honor (Detail from a photograph by Mr. Steve White)

          The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, March 3, 1863, has awarded in the name of The Congress, the MEDAL OF HONOR posthumously to

CAPTAIN LANCE P. SIJAN

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

          While on a flight over North Vietnam on 9 November 1967, Captain Sijan ejected from his disabled aircraft and successfully evaded capture for more than six weeks. During this time, he was seriously injured and suffered from shock and extreme weight loss due to lack of food. After being captured by North Vietnamese soldiers, Captain Sijan was taken to a holding point for subsequent transfer to a Prisoner of War camp. In his emaciated and crippled condition, he overpowered one of his guards and crawled into the jungle, only to be recaptured after several hours. He was then transferred to another prison camp where he was kept in solitary confinement and interrogated at length. During interrogation, he was severely tortured; however, he did not divulge any information to his captors. Captain Sijan lapsed into delirium and was placed in the care of another prisoner. During his intermittent periods of consciousness until his death, he never complained of his physical condition, and on several occasions, spoke of future escape attempts. Captain Sijan’s extraordinary heroism and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of the United States.

/s/ Gerald R. Ford

Hỏa Lò Prison, the “Hanoi Hilton. (U.S. Air Force)
Lance P. Sijan, (1960 Oracle)

Lance Peter Sijan was born 13 April 1942 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He was the first of three children of Sylvester Sijan and Jane A. Attridge Sijan. Lance attended Bay View High School in Milwaukee. He was interested in science and art. He played on the varsity basketball, football, swimming and track teams, and was a member of the science club, foreign language and art clubs. Sijan was chosen to speak at the school’s graduation ceremony.

Cadet 4th Class, Sijan, L.P., 1961 (U.S. Air Force)

After finishing high school, Sijan enlisted in the United States Air Force as an Airman, 3rd Class. To improve his education, Airman Sijan was sent to the Naval Academy Preparatory School at Newport, Rhode Island. Completing the one-year course, now-Airman 2nd Class Sijan was appointed as a cadet at the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Sports, academics

While on summer leave from the Academy, on 27 July 1964, Sijan and his younger brother, Marc F. Sijan, were sailing on Lake Weyauwega, Wisonsin, when a gust of wind capsized their boat. Thrown into the water, they unsuccessfully attempted to right the small craft, They were eventually rescued by a motorboat driven by their father.

Local automobile dealerships in Colorado Springs offered special pricing on new cars to Air Force Academy cadets. The Chevrolet Corvette was a popular choice. For his first class (senior) year, Sijan ordered a 1965 Corvette roadster. The car was painted Roman Red and had a white interior. It was powered by a 326.726-cubic-inch (5.354 liter) L75 small block V-8 engine rated at 300 horsepower, with a 4-speed transmission. He picked the car up at the Corvette assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

Lance Sijan with his red 1965 Chevrolet Corvette. (Hemmings)

Cadet 1st Class Sijan graduated from the Air Force Academy with a bachelor of science degree and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant, United States Air Force, 9 June 1965.

Lieutenant Sijan was sent to Laredo Air Force Base, Texas, for undergraduate pilot training. Awarded his pilot’s wings in November 1966, Sijan was next assigned to the 431st Tactical Fighter Squadron at George Air Force Base in California, for Combat Crew Training and transition to the F-4C and F-4D Phantom II. In July 1967, he was transferred to the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 366th Tactical Fighter Wind (“Gunfighters) based at DaNang, Republic of Vietnam.

480th Tactical Fighter Squadron pilots, circa 1967. Lieutenant Lance P. Sijan in seated in the front row, fourth from the left. Lieutenant Colonel John W. Armstrong, squadron commander, is standing in the second row, tenth from left, near center. The aircraft is McDonnell F-4C-23-MC Phantom II 64-0759, assigned to the 366th Tactical Fighter Wing commander, Colonel Bud Kaldy.. (Together We Served)

For his actions in combat 22 August 1967, Lieutenant Sijan was awarded the DIstinguished Flying Cross. His citation reads:

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 2, 1926, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Flying Cross to First Lieutenant Lance Peter Sijan (AFSN: AF-16419378/F-80654/3537K), United States Air Force, for extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight as the Pilot of an F-4C “Phantom II” tactical jet fighter over North Vietnam on 22 August 1967. On that date, Lieutenant Sijan voluntarily risked his life in striking a heavily defended storage area. Despite heavy ground fire, he participated in multiple passes to deliver flares and ordnance directly on the target. Undaunted by darkness, treacherous terrain, marginal weather, and determined defenses, Lieutenant Sijan dealt a telling blow to the hostile forces by denying them vital war material and petroleum products. The professional competence, aerial skill, and devotion to duty displayed by Lieutenant Sijan reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.

Outside of the Hanoi Hilton, nothing was known of Lieutenant Sijan. He had not been heard from since 11 November 1967. Classified as Missing in Action (MIA), Sijan was promoted to the rank of Captain, U.S. Air Force, 13 June 1968.

Captain Sijan’s remains returned to the United States on 13 March 1974. Once positively identified, on 23 April 1974, his status was changed to Killed in Action (KIA).

In a ceremony at The White House, 4 March 1976, Gerald R. Ford, 38th President of the United States of America, presented the Medal of Honor to Sijan’s parents.

Captain Lance Peter Sijan is the only graduate of the United States Air Force Academy to have been awarded the Medal of Honor.

Lance Sijan’s USAFA class ring.

© 2019, Bryan R. Swopes

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Air Force Cross, Sergeant Larry Wayne Maysey, United States Air Force

"That Others May Live." Bronze sculpture of Sergeant Larry Wayne Maysey, United States Air Force, by Wayne Hyde. The memorial is located on Main Street, Borough of Chester, New Jersey. (© Sheena Chi)
“That Others May Live.” Bronze statue of Sergeant Larry Wayne Maysey, United States Air Force, by Wayne Hyde. The memorial is located on Main Street, Borough of Chester, New Jersey. (© Sheena Chi)

 AIR FORCE CROSS

Awarded posthumously for actions during the Vietnam War

Sgt. Larry W. Masey
Sergeant Larry W. Maysey, Rescue Specialist, United States Air Force

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Title 10, Section 8742, United States Code, takes pride in presenting the Air Force Cross (Posthumously) to Sergeant Larry Wayne Maysey (AFSN: 12751422), United States Air Force, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an opposing armed force as an HH-3E Rescue Specialist (Pararescueman) of the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group, DaNang Air Base, Vietnam, in Southeast Asia on 9 November 1967. On that date, Sergeant Maysey attempted the night extraction of a ground reconnaissance team after his helicopter had been severely damaged. Two other helicopters had been shot down and a third extensively damaged in previous attempts. During the rescue attempt, Sergeant Maysey unhesitatingly exposed himself to the hail of hostile fire to assist wounded survivors into the helicopter. The hostile forces closed in quickly, and as the damaged helicopter departed, it was shot down. Though his extraordinary heroism, superb airmanship, and aggressiveness in the face of the enemy, Sergeant Maysey reflected the highest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.

Action Date: 9-Nov-67

Service: Air Force

Rank: Sergeant

Company: 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron

Regiment: 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group

Division: DaNang Air Base, Vietnam

Air Force Cross
Air Force Cross

Larry Wayne Maysey was born 18 November 1946 in the Borough of Chester, new jersey. he was the son of Charles and Charlotte Maysey. He attended West Morris High School, graduating in 1965.

After graduating from high school, Larry Maysey enlisted in the United States Air Force, and was selected for training as a Pararescue Jumper at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The “PJs” of the U.S. Air Force are graduates of an two-year training course, known as “the Pipeline,” which is one of the most intense training programs of any military service. The failure rate is about 80%.

Sergeant Maysey arrived in Vietnam in mid-October 1967, assigned to the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. On 9 November 1967, he was one of the crew of “Jolly Green 26,” A Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) helicopter.

Sergeant Maysey’s remains were not recovered. His name is inscribed on the Courts of the Missing, at the Honolulu Memorial, National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific.

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes

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Air Force Cross, Staff Sergeant Eugene Lunsford Clay, United States Air Force

Air Force Cross
Eugene Lunsford Clay

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Title 10, Section 8742, United States Code, takes pride in presenting the Air Force Cross (Posthumously) to Staff Sergeant Eugene Lunsford Clay (AFSN: 18497841), United States Air Force, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an opposing armed force as an HH-3E Flight Engineer of the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group, DaNang Air Base, Vietnam, in action in Southeast Asia on 9 November 1967. On that date, Sergeant Clay attempted the night extraction of a ground reconnaissance team after his helicopter had been severely damaged. Two other helicopters had been shot down and a third extensively damaged in previous attempts. During the rescue attempt, Sergeant Clay unhesitatingly exposed himself to hostile fire to assist the survivors to the aircraft. The hostile forces closed in quickly, and as the damaged helicopter departed, it was shot down. Through his extraordinary heroism, superb airmanship, and aggressiveness in the face of hostile forces, Staff Sergeant Clay reflected the highest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.

Action Date: November 9, 1967

Service: Air Force

Battalion: 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron

Regiment: 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group

Division: DaNang Air Base, Vietnam

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Air Force Cross, Captain Ralph Wayne Brower, United States Air Force

Air Force Cross
Ralph Wayne Brower

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Title 10, Section 8742, United States Code, takes pride in presenting the Air Force Cross (Posthumously) to Captain Ralph Wayne Brower (AFSN: 0-3109303), United States Air Force (Reserve), for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an opposing armed force as an HH-3E pilot of the 37th Aero Space Rescue and Recovery Squadron, 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group, DaNang Air Base, Vietnam, in action in Southeast Asia on 9 November 1967. On that date, captain Brower attempted the night extraction of a ground reconnaissance team. Despite full knowledge that two helicopters had been shot down and a third severely damaged by intense, accurately directed hostile fire, Captain Brower, with determination, indomitable courage, and profession skill, established a hover on a steep slope within one hundred yards of hostile weapons positions and brought the wounded survivors aboard. The hostile forces closed in quickly, and as the helicopter departed, it was shot down. Through his extraordinary heroism, superb airmanship, and aggressiveness in the face of hostile forces, Captain Brower reflected the highest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.

Action Date: November 9, 1967

Service: Air Force

Battalion: 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron

Regiment: 3d Air Rescue and Recovery Group

Division: DaNang Air Base, Vietnam

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Medal of Honor, Captain Gerald Orren Young, United States Air Force

Captain Gerald Orren Young, United States Air Force. (U.S. Air Force)

MEDAL OF HONOR

YOUNG, GERALD O.

Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 37th ARS Da Nang AFB, Republic of Vietnam.

Place and date: Khesanh, 9 November 1967.

Entered service at: Colorado Springs, Colo. Born: 9 May 1930, Chicago, Ill.

Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Young distinguished himself while serving as a helicopter rescue crew commander. Capt. Young was flying escort for another helicopter attempting the night rescue of an Army ground reconnaissance team in imminent danger of death or capture. Previous attempts had resulted in the loss of 2 helicopters to hostile ground fire. The endangered team was positioned on the side of a steep slope which required unusual airmanship on the part of Capt. Young to effect pickup. Heavy automatic weapons fire from the surrounding enemy severely damaged 1 rescue helicopter, but it was able to extract 3 of the team. The commander of this aircraft recommended to Capt. Young that further rescue attempts be abandoned because it was not possible to suppress the concentrated fire from enemy automatic weapons. With full knowledge of the danger involved, and the fact that supporting helicopter gunships were low on fuel and ordnance, Capt. Young hovered under intense fire until the remaining survivors were aboard. As he maneuvered the aircraft for takeoff, the enemy appeared at point-blank range and raked the aircraft with automatic weapons fire. The aircraft crashed, inverted, and burst into flames. Capt. Young escaped through a window of the burning aircraft. Disregarding serious burns, Capt. Young aided one of the wounded men and attempted to lead the hostile forces away from his position. Later, despite intense pain from his burns, he declined to accept rescue because he had observed hostile forces setting up automatic weapons positions to entrap any rescue aircraft. For more than 17 hours he evaded the enemy until rescue aircraft could be brought into the area. Through his extraordinary heroism, aggressiveness, and concern for his fellow man, Capt. Young reflected the highest credit upon himself, the U.S. Air Force, and the Armed Forces of his country.

Sikorsky HH-3E 66-13290, a Jolly Green Giant rescue helicopter of the 37th Air Rescue Squadron, Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, 1968. This aircraft is similar to 66-13279, Jolly Green 26, the helicopter flown by Captain Young, 9 November 1967. (U.S. Air Force)
Sikorsky HH-3E Sea King 66-13290, a “Jolly Green Giant” rescue helicopter of the 37th Air Rescue Squadron, Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, 1968. This aircraft the same type as 66-13279, “Jolly 26,” the helicopter flown by Captains Young and Brower, 9 November 1967. (U.S. Air Force)

The remaining crew members of Jolly Green 26 died in the crash. They were Captain Ralph Wayne Brower, the helicopter’s co-pilot; Staff Sergeant Eugene Lunsford Clay, flight engineer; Sergeant Larry Wayne Maysey, Pararescueman. The soldiers that “Jolly 26” had just rescued, Special Forces Master Sergeant Bruce Raymond Baxter and Specialist 4 Joseph George Kusick, both of U.S. Army Reconnaissance Team UTAH, were also killed.

Captain Brower, Staff Sergeant Clay and Sergeant Maysey were each posthumously awarded the Air Force Cross for “extraordinary heroism” during the rescue.

Hill 891, a 2,923-foot hilltop just west of the Laos/Vietnam Border: the crash site of UH-1D "Spartan 53" and HH-3E "Jolly Green 26," 9 November 1967. (190th AHC)
Hill 891, a 2,923-foot hilltop just west of the village of Talat Luay, Laos, along the Vietnam Border: the crash site of UH-1D “Spartan 53” and HH-3E “Jolly Green 26,” 9 November 1967. (190th AHC)

Gerald Orren Young was born at Chicago. Illinois, 19 May 1930. He was the son of Orren Vernon Young and Ruth Vesta Bovee Young.

Gerry Young enlisted in the United States Navy, 24 May 1947, and trained as an aviation electriciann’s mate. He was discharged 29 February 1952. Young reenlisted 6 August 1955 and served until 15 July 1956, when he was selected as aviation cadet in the United States Air Force. He graduated flight school and was commissioned a second lieutenant, U.S. Air Force, 18 June 1958. Lieutenant Young trained as helicopter pilot. He was sent to the Marshall Islands for his first operational assignment, flying in support of the Operation Hardtack I nuclear weapons test series, from June through December 1958.

After a little over one year of duty in Japan, Lieutenant Young returned to the United States to support strategic missile bases at several locations. In August 1967 Young was reassigned to the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. He flew 60 combat missions in the HH-3E.

Following the 9 November 1967, Captain Young was hospitalized for several months. On 14 May 1968, in a ceremony at The Pentagon, President Lyndon Johnson presented the medal of Honor to Captain Young.

Major Young served with Detachment 24, 42nd ARRS, based at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington, from February 1972. Det. 24 flew the twin-engine Bell UH-1N “Huey” helicopter.

He next attended the Defense Language Institute at Monterey, preparing for an assignment with the Fuerzas de Defensa de Panamá (Panama Defense Forces). While there, on 21 August 1972, Major Young’s wife, Nancy, died of a heart attack.

Following duty in Panama, Major Young completed a bachelor of arts degree at the University of Maryland. He then served as air attache to Columbia, followed by a series of staff assignments.

Lieutenant Colonel Gerald Orren Young retired from the U.S. Air Force, 30 June 1980, after more than 30 years of military service. In addition to the Medal of Honor, Colonel Young had been awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart, the Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters, and the Air Force Commendation Medal with oak leaf cluster. He died 6 June 1990. Colonel Young’s remains were interred at the Arlington National Cemetery.

Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant. (U.S. Air Force)

The Sikorsky HH-3E (Sikorsky S-61R) earned the nickname Jolly Green Giant during the Vietnam War. It is a dedicated Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) helicopter flown by the U.S. Air Force, based on the CH-3C transport helicopter. The aircraft is flown by two pilots and the crew includes a flight mechanic and gunner. It is a large twin-engine helicopter with a single main rotor/tail rotor configuration. It has retractable tricycle landing gear and a rear cargo ramp. The rear landing gear retracts into a stub wing on the aft fuselage. The helicopter has an extendable inflight refueling boom.

The HH-3E is 72 feet, 7 inches (22.123 meters) long and 18 feet, 10 inches (5.740 meters) high with all rotors turning. The main rotor has five blades and a diameter of 62 feet (18.898 meters). Each blade has a chord of 1 foot, 6.25 inches (0.464 meters). The main rotor turns at 203 r.p.m., counter-clockwise, as seen from above. (The advancing blade is on the right.) The tail rotor also has five blades and has a diameter of 10 feet, 4 inches (3.150 meters). The blades have a chord of 7–11/32 inches (0.187 meters). The tail rotor turns clockwise as seen from the helicopter’s left. (The advancing blade is below the axis of rotation.) The tail rotor turns 1,244 r.p.m.

The HH-3E has an empty weight of 13,341 pounds (6,051 kilograms). The maximum gross weight is 22,050 pounds (10,002 kilograms).

The Jolly Green Giant is powered by two General Electric T58-GE-5 turboshaft engines, which have a Maximum Continuous Power rating of 1,400 shaft horsepower, each, and Military Power rating of 1,500 shaft horsepower. The main transmission is rated for 2,500 horsepower, maximum.

The HH-3E has a cruise speed of 154 miles per hour (248 kilometers per hour) at Sea Level, and a maximum speed of 177 miles per hour (285 kilometers per hour), also at Sea Level. The service ceiling is 14,000 feet (4,267 meters). The HH-3E had a maximum range of 779 miles (1,254 kilometers) with external fuel tanks.

The Jolly Green Giant can be armed with two M60 7.62 mm machine guns.

Sikorsky built 14 HH-3Es. Many CH-3Cs and CH-3Es were upgraded to the HH-3E configuration. Sikorsky built a total of 173 of the S-61R series.

Sikorsky HH-3E Jolly Green Giant 67-14709 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. (U.S. Air Force)

© 2019, Bryan R. Swopes

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