Tag Archives: Glenn L. Martin Co.

6 August 1945

Silverplate Martin-Omaha B-29-45-MO Superfortress 44-86292, “Dimples 82,” at Tinian, Marshall Islands, August 1945. Note the “Circle Arrowhead” tail code. (U.S. Air Force)

6 August 1945: At 0245 hours, a four-engine, long range heavy bomber of the 509th Composite Group, United States Army Air Forces, took off from North Field on the island of Tinian in the Marshall Group, on the most secret combat mission of World War II.

Colonel Paul Warfield Tibbets, Jr., United States Army Air Forces, Commanding Officer, 509th Composite group, and aircraft commander of the B-29 Superfortress, Enola Gay. (U.S. Air Force)
Colonel Paul Warfield Tibbets, Jr., United States Army Air Corps, Commanding Officer, 509th Composite Group, and aircraft commander of the B-29 Superfortress, Enola Gay. (U.S. Air Force)

The Martin-Omaha B-29-45-MO Superfortress, 44-86292, under the command of Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., was carrying Bomb Unit L-11, the first nuclear weapon to be used during war. This was a 9,700-pound (4,400 kilogram) “gun type” fission bomb, the Mark I, code-named Little Boy. It contained 64 kilograms (141.1 pounds) of highly-enriched uranium. The bomb was 120 inches (3.048 meters) long with a diameter of  28 inches (0.711 meter). Although it was a very inefficient weapon, it was considered to be such reliable design that it had not been tested.

Code named "Little Boy," the Mark I bomb unit L-11, prior to loading aboard Enola Gay, 5 August 1945. (U.S. Air Force)
Code named “Little Boy,” the Mark I bomb unit L-11, prior to loading aboard Enola Gay, 5 August 1945. (U.S. Air Force)

On the morning before the mission, Colonel Tibbets had his mother’s name painted on the nose of the airplane: Enola Gay. He had personally selected this bomber, serial number 44-86292, while it was still on the assembly line at the Glenn L. Martin Company plant at Bellevue, Nebraska, 9 May 1945. The B-29 was accepted by the Army Air Corps on 15 May and flown to the 509th’s base at Wendover, Utah, by Captain Robert A. Lewis, a B-29 aircraft commander who would act as Tibbets’ co-pilot on the atomic bombing mission.

The B-29 Superfortress was designed by the Boeing Airplane Company as its Model 345. Produced in three major version, the B-29, B-29A and B-29B, it was built by Boeing at Wichita, Kansas and Redmond, Washington; by the Bell Aircraft Corporation at Marietta, Georgia; and the Glenn L. Martin Company at Fort Crook (now Offutt Air Force Base, Omaha, Nebraska. A total of 3,943 Superfortresses were built.

The B-29 was the most technologically advanced airplane built up to that time, and required an immense effort by American industry to produce.

The B-29 Superfortress was 99 feet, 0 inches (30.175 meters) long with a wingspan of 141 feet, 3 inches (43.053 meters) and an overall height of 27 feet, 9 inches (8.458 meters). The standard B-29 had an empty weight of 74,500 pounds (33,793 kilograms) and gross weight of 120,000 pounds (54.431 kilograms).

Enola Gay at Tinian, with crew members.
Enola Gay at Tinian, with crew members.

The Silverplate B-29s differed from the standard production bombers in many ways. They were approximately 6,000 pounds (2,722 kilograms) lighter. The bomber carried no armor. Additional fuel tanks were installed in the rear bomb bay. The bomb bay doors were operated by quick-acting pneumatic systems. The bomb release mechanism in the forward bomb bay was replaced by a single-point release as was used in special British Lancaster bombers. A weaponeer’s control station was added to the cockpit to monitor the special bomb systems.

Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., waves from the cockpit of the Silverplate Martin-Omaha B-29-45-MO Superfortress Enola Gay, 44-86292, just before starting engines at 02:27 a.m., 6 August 1945. (Sergeant Armen Shamlian, United States Army Air Forces. National Archives and Records Administration)

Enola Gay had four air-cooled, supercharged, 3,347.662-cubic-inch-displacement (54.858 liter) Wright Aeronautical Division R-3350-41 (Cyclone 18 787C18BA3) two-row 18-cylinder radial engines with direct fuel injection. The R-3350-41 had a compression ratio of 6.85:1 and required 100/130 aviation gasoline. It was rated at 2,000 horsepower at 2,400 r.p.m. at Sea Level, and 2,200 horsepower at 2,800 r.p.m, for take-off. The engines drove four-bladed Curtiss Electric reversible-pitch propellers with a diameter of 16 feet, 8 inches (5.080 meters), through a 0.35:1 gear reduction. The R-3350-41 was 6 feet, 2.26 inches (1.937 meters) long, 4 feet, 7.78 inches (1.417 meters) in diameter and weighed 2,725 pounds (1,236 kilograms).

With the exception of the tail gunner’s position, all defensive armament—four powered remotely operated gun turrets with ten .50-caliber machine guns—were deleted. Their remote sighting positions were also removed. Enola Gay carried 1,000 rounds of ammunition for each of the two remaining Browning AN-M2 .50-caliber machine guns in the tail.

With these changes, the Silverplate B-29s could fly higher and faster than a standard B-29, and the new engines were more reliable. Enola Gay had a cruising speed of 220 miles per hour (354 kilometers per hour) and a maximum speed of 365 miles per hour (587 kilometers per hour). Its service ceiling was 31,850 feet (9,708 meters) and its combat radius was 2,900 miles (4,667 kilometers).

At 09:15:17 a.m., (mission time, 8:15 a.m., local), Enola Gay was at 31,000 feet (9,450 meters) over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on the island of Honshu, an industrial center with a population of about 340,000 people. The bombardier initiated the automatic release sequence and the the atomic bomb was dropped. It fell for 44.4 seconds and detonated at an altitude of 1,968 feet (600 meters), about 800 feet (244 meters) from the aiming point, the Aioi Bridge over the Ota River.

The mushroom cloud rises over Hiroshima, Japan, 2–3 minutes after detonation. Photographed 6,500 meters from hypocenter (Seizo Yamada)
The mushroom cloud rises over Hiroshima, Japan, 2–3 minutes after detonation. Photographed 6,500 meters (4 miles) from hypocenter (Seizo Yamada)
A mushroom cloud rises over the devastated city Hiroshima, Japan, 2–3 minutes after detonation, 6 August 1945, photographed by Technical Sergeant George R. Caron, U.S. Army Air Corps, tail gunner of the B-29 Enola Gay, using a Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company K-20 aerial camera with a 6-3/8" f/4.5, 4" × 5" film negative. (National Archives RG 77-AEC)
A mushroom cloud rises 20,000 feet (6,100 meters) over the devastated city of Hiroshima, Japan, 2–3 minutes after detonation, 6 August 1945, photographed from Yoshiura, looking southward, by Technical Sergeant George R. Caron, U.S. Army Air Corps, tail gunner of the B-29 Enola Gay, using a Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company K-20 aerial camera with a 6-3/8″ f/4.5, 4″ × 5″ film negative. (U.S. Air Force)
Pyrocumulus cloud seen from ground level.
Two-tier cloud 2–5 minutes after detonation, seen from Kaitaichi, 6 miles east of Hiroshima. Photographer unknown. (The Atlantic)
Pyrocumulus cloud rising over Hiroshima. Photographer unknown. (Atomic Heritage Foundation)
A pyrocumulus cloud from the firestorm spreads laterally as it reaches the upper atmosphere. (U.S. Air Force)
A pyrocumulus cloud from the firestorm spreads laterally as it reaches the upper atmosphere. (U.S. Air Force)
Hiroshima photoggraphed by a reconnaissance airplane several hours after the explosion. (U.S. Air Force)
Hiroshima photographed by a reconnaissance airplane several hours after the explosion. (U.S. Air Force)

Ground Zero, the point on the surface directly below the explosion, was the Shima Hospital. The overpressure is estimated to have been 4.5–6.7 tons per square meter. The two-story brick building was completely obliterated. Of the patients, technicians, nurses and doctors inside, nothing remained.

The entrance to Shima Hospital is all the remained following the detonation of the atomic bomb.

The resulting explosion was approximately equivalent in explosive force to the detonation of 16,000 tons (14,515 metric tons) of TNT (16 “kilotons”). An estimated 70,000 people were killed immediately, and another 70,000 were wounded. As many as 160,000 people may have died as a result of the atomic bombing by the end of 1945. More would follow over the next few years.

The shadow of one of the victims of the atomic bomb is etched onto the steps in front of a destroyed building.
The shadow of one of the victims of the atomic bomb is etched onto the steps in front of a destroyed building.

An area of the city with a radius of 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) from the point of detonation (“hypocenter”) was totally destroyed, and combined with the fires that followed, 4.7 square miles (12.17 kilometers²) of the city were destroyed. 69% of all buildings in Hiroshima were completely destroyed and another 6% damaged.

Hisroshima photographed in March 1946. (National Archives)
Hisroshima photographed in March 1946. (National Archives)

As soon as the bomb was released, Colonel Tibbets turned his B-29 away to avoid the blast. It was just over 11 miles (17.7 kilometers) from the detonation point when the shock waves hit, but no damage resulted. The bomber was then flown back to Tinian, landing after an elapsed time of 12 hours, 13 minutes.

Col. Tibbets’ B-29, Enola Gay, 44-86292, landing at Tinian Island, 6 August 1945. Note: “Circle R” identification on tail. (U.S. Air Force)
Martin-Omaha Silverplate B-29 Superfortress 44 86292, Enola Gay, taxis to its hardstand after returning to Tinian, 6 August 1945. (U.S. Air Force)
Martin-Omaha Silverplate B-29 Superfortress 44 86292, Enola Gay, taxis to its hardstand after returning to Tinian, 6 August 1945. (U.S. Air Force)

Enola Gay was placed in storage at Davis-Monthan Army Air Field, Tucson, Arizona, 26 July 1946, and was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution just over one month later, 30 August 1946. For decades it sat in storage at different locations around the country, but finally a total restoration was performed. Today, the B-29 is on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, National Air and Space Museum.

Martin-Omaha B-29-45-MO Superfortress 44-86292, Enola Gay, at teh Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum.
Martin-Omaha B-29-45-MO Superfortress 44-86292, Enola Gay, at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum. (Photo by Eric Long, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution )

© 2017, Bryan R. Swopes

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11 November 1966, 19:21:04 UTC, T minus Zero

Gemini XII lifts off from LC-19 at 2:21:04 p.m., EST, 11 November 1966. (NASA)
Gemini XII lifts off from LC-19 at 2:21:04 p.m., EST, 11 November 1966. (NASA)

11 November 1966: Gemini XII lifted off from Launch Complex 19 at the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 2:21:04 p.m., EST. NASA Astronauts James A Lovell, Jr., and Edwin E. (“Buzz”) Aldrin, Jr. were the crew. This was the second space flight for Lovell, who had previously flown on Gemini VII, and would later serve as Command Module Pilot on Apollo 8 and Mission Commander on Apollo 13. It was Aldrin’s first space flight. He would later be the Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 11, and was the second human to set foot of the surface of the Moon.

The two-man Gemini spacecraft was built by the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation of St. Louis, the same company that built the earlier Mercury space capsule. The spacecraft consisted of a reentry module and an adapter section. It had an overall length of 19 feet (5.791 meters) and a diameter of 10 feet (3.048 meters) at the base of the adapter section. The reentry module was 11 feet (3.353 meters) long with a diameter of 7.5 feet (2.347 meters). The weight of the Gemini varied from ship to ship but was approximately 7,000 pounds (3,175 kilograms)

The Titan II GLV was a “man-rated” variant of the Martin SM-68B intercontinental ballistic missile. It was assembled at Martin’s Middle River, Maryland plant so as not to interfere with the production of the ICBM at Denver, Colorado. Twelve GLVs were ordered by the Air Force for the Gemini Program.

The Titan II GLV was a two-stage, liquid-fueled rocket. The first stage was 63 feet (19.202 meters) long with a diameter of 10 feet (3.048 meters). The second stage was 27 feet (8.230 meters) long, with the same diameter. The 1st stage was powered by an Aerojet Engineering Corporation LR-87-7 engine which combined two combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles with a single turbopump unit. The engine was fueled by a hypergolic combination of hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Ignition occurred spontaneously as the two components were combined in the combustion chambers. The LR-87-7 produced 430,000 pounds of thrust (1,912.74 kilonewtons). It was not throttled and could not be shut down and restarted. The 2nd stage used an Aerojet LR-91 engine which produced 100,000 pounds of thrust (444.82 kilonewtons).

The Gemini/Titan II GLV combination had a total height of 109 feet (33.223 meters) and weighed approximately 340,000 pounds (154,220 kilograms) when fueled.

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin standing in the open hatch of Gemini XII in Earth orbit. (NASA)

Gemini XII was the tenth and last manned flight of the Gemini program. The purpose of this mission was to test rendezvous and docking with an orbiting Agena Target Docking Vehicle and to test extravehicular activity (“EVA,” or “space walk”) procedures. Both of these were crucial parts of the upcoming Apollo program and previous problems would have to be resolved before the manned space flight projects could move to the next phase. Buzz Aldrin had made a special study of EVA factors, and his three “space walks,” totaling 5 hours, 30 minutes, were highly successful. The rendezvous and docking was flown manually because of a computer problem, but was successful. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of scientific experiments were performed by the two astronauts.

Gemini XII is tethered to the Agena TDV, in Earth orbit over the southwest United States and northern Mexico. (NASA)
Gemini XII is tethered to the Agena TDV, in Earth orbit over the southwest United States and northern Mexico. (NASA)

Gemini XII reentered Earth’s atmosphere and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean, just 4.8 kilometers from the planned target. Recovery was aboard USS Wasp (CVS-18). Total duration of the flight was 3 days, 22 hours, 34 minutes, 31 seconds.

Gemini XII astronauts Major Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., USAF, and Captain James A. Lovell, Jr., USN, arrive aboard USS Wasp (CVS-18), 15 November 1966. (Bettman/Corbis)
Gemini XII astronauts Major Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., USAF, and Captain James A. Lovell, Jr., USN, arrive aboard USS Wasp (CVS-18), 15 November 1966. (Bettman/Corbis)

© 2016, Bryan R. Swopes

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