22 July 1944

22 July 1944: During an air attack on a Japanese seaplane base and barge landing at Kokas, Enga, Dutch New Guinea, a Douglas A-20G-25-DO Havoc light attack bomber, serial number 43-9432, was hit by anti-aircraft gunfire and crashed into the sea. The pilot, 1st Lieutenant James L. Knarr, on his 70th combat mission, and gunner Staff Sergeant Charles G. Reichley, on his 46th, were killed. The A-20, named Bevo, had been assigned to the 387th Bombardment Squadron, 312th Bombardment Group, based at the Hollandia Airfield Complex.

1. Bevo, a Douglas A-20G Havoc, at the upper right, has been hit by anti-aircraft gunfire and banks right. (U.S. Air Force)
1. Bevo, a Douglas A-20G Havoc, at the upper right, has been hit by anti-aircraft gunfire and banks right, trailing smoke from the open bomb bay. (U.S. Air Force, 53686 A.C.)
2. With the smoke increasing, the A-20 continues to roll right wing down and quickly loses altitude. (U.S. Air Force)
2. With the smoke increasing, the A-20 continues to roll right and quickly loses altitude. (U.S. Air Force, A-53686 A.C.)
3. The attack bomber hits the water and begins to disintegrate. (U.S. Air Force)
3. The attack bomber hits the water and begins to disintegrate. (U.S. Air Force, B-53686 A.C.)
4. Wreckage explodes across the surface of the water. (U.S. Air Force)
4. Wreckage explodes across the surface of Sekar Bay. (U.S. Air Force, C-53686 A.C.)

The Douglas A-20G Havoc was a twin-engine light bomber developed from an earlier export aircraft produced for France and Britain. 7,348 A-20s were built at Douglas Aircraft Company plants in Long beach, El Segundo and Santa Monica, California, from 1939 to 1945. All 2,850 of the A-20G variant were built at Santa Monica from 1943 to 1945. It was 48 feet (14.63 meters) long with a wingspan of 61 feet, 4 inches (18.69 meters) and overall height of 17 feet, 7 inches (5.40 meters). The A-20G had an empty weight of 17,200 pounds (7,802 kilograms) and 30,000 pounds (13,608 kilograms) maximum takeoff weight. It was powered by two 2,603.9-cubic-inch-displacement (42.67 liter) air-cooled, supercharged Wright Aeronautical Corporation R-2600-23 Twin Cyclone two-row 14-cylinder radial engines producing 1,400 horsepower at 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), 1,600 horsepower for takeoff and 1,675 horsepower at War Emergency Power. These gave the A-20G a cruise speed of 230 miles per hour (370 kilometers per hour) and maximum speed of 339 miles per hour (546 kilometers per hour) at 12,400 feet (3,780 meters). The service ceiling was 25,800 feet (7,864 meters). Range with a 2,000 pound ( kilogram) bomb load was 1,025 miles (1,650 kilometers).

The A-20G Havoc was armed with six forward-firing .50-caliber machine guns with 350 rounds of ammunition per gun, a power turret with another two .50-caliber guns and 400 rounds per gun, and a ninth .50 mounted in a ventral tunnel with 400 rounds. The bomber could carry 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms) of bombs in the internal bomb bay and a 5oo pounder (227 kilograms) on a hardpoint under each wing.

This Douglas A-20G-45-DO Havoc, 43-22200, at the National Museum of teh United States Air Force, is marked as A-20G-40-DO 43-21475 of the 389th Bombardment Squadron, 312th Bombardment Group. (U.S. Air Force)
This Douglas A-20G-45-DO Havoc, 43-22200, at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, is marked as A-20G-40-DO 43-21475 of the 389th Bombardment Squadron, 312th Bombardment Group. (U.S. Air Force)

© 2014, Bryan R. Swopes

22 July 1943

22 July 1943: A Royal Air Force official photographer visited No. 617 Squadron, The Dambusters, at their base at RAF Scampton, Lincolnshire, England. These photographic images are part of the Ministry of Information Second World War Colour Transparency Collection.

Wing Commander Guy Gibson with members of his crew. Left to right: Wing Commander Guy Gibson, VC, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar; Pilot Officer P M Spafford, bomb aimer; Flight Lieutenant R E G Hutchinson, wireless operator; Pilot Officer G A Deering and Flying Officer H T Taerum, gunners. (Imperial War Museum TR 1127)
Wing Commander Guy Gibson with members of his crew. Left to right: Wing Commander Guy Gibson, VC, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar; Pilot Officer P M Spafford, bomb aimer; Flight Lieutenant R E G Hutchinson, wireless operator; Pilot Officer G A Deering and Flying Officer H T Taerum, gunners. (Imperial War Museum TR 1127) 
Wing Commander Guy Gibson sitting in a poppy field reading a book. (Imperial War Museum TR 1125)
Wing Commander Guy Gibson sitting in a poppy field reading a book. (Imperial War Museum TR 1125)
The crew of Lancaster ED285/`AJ-T' sitting on the grass, posed under stormy clouds. Left to right: Sergeant G Johnson; Pilot Officer D A MacLean, navigator; Flight Lieutenant J C McCarthy, pilot; Sergeant L Eaton, gunner. In the rear are Sergeant R Batson, gunner; and Sergeant W G Ratcliffe, engineer. Flight Lieutenant Joe McCarthy (fourth from left) and his crew of No. 617 Squadron (The Dambusters) at RAF Scampton, 22 July 1943.
The crew of Lancaster ED285/`AJ-T’ sitting on the grass, posed under stormy clouds. Left to right: Sergeant G Johnson; Pilot Officer D A MacLean, navigator; Flight Lieutenant J C McCarthy, pilot; Sergeant L Eaton, gunner. In the rear are Sergeant R Batson, gunner; and Sergeant W G Ratcliffe, engineer.
Flight Lieutenant Joe McCarthy (fourth from left) and his crew of No. 617 Squadron (The Dambusters) at RAF Scampton, 22 July 1943. (Imperial War Museum TR 1128)
Flight Lieutenant Dave Shannon, pilot of ED929/`AJ-L' on the dams raid, with Flight Lieutenant R D Trevor-Roper, who flew as Gibson's rear gunner on the dam's raid; and Squadron Leader G W Holden. (Imperial War Museum TR 1129)
Flight Lieutenant Dave Shannon, pilot of ED929/`AJ-L’ on the dams raid, with Flight Lieutenant R D Trevor-Roper, who flew as Gibson’s rear gunner on the dam’s raid; and Squadron Leader G W Holden. (Imperial War Museum TR 1129)
Flight Lieutenant Harold Sydney Wilson and crew. They did not fly on the Dams raid owing to illness. Left to right: Flight Sergeant Trevor H Payne, front gunner; Pilot Officer Thomas W Johnson, flight engineer; Sergeant Eric Hornby, rear gunner; Sergeant Lloyd G Mieyette, wireless operator; Pilot Officer George H Coles, bomb-aimer; Flying Officer James A Rodger, navigator; and Flight Lieutenant Harold S Wilson. All were killed when their Lancaster was shot down on the night of 15 /16 September 1943 during the raid on the Dortmund-Ems Canal. (Imperial War Museum TR 1126)
Flight Lieutenant Harold Sydney Wilson and crew. They did not fly on the Dams raid owing to illness. Left to right: Flight Sergeant Trevor H Payne, front gunner; Pilot Officer Thomas W Johnson, flight engineer; Sergeant Eric Hornby, rear gunner; Sergeant Lloyd G Mieyette, wireless operator; Pilot Officer George H Coles, bomb-aimer; Flying Officer James A Rodger, navigator; and Flight Lieutenant Harold S Wilson. All were killed when their Lancaster was shot down on the night of 15 /16 September 1943 during the raid on the Dortmund-Ems Canal. (Imperial War Museum TR 1126)
Wing Commander Guy Gibson at his desk with Squadron Leader D J H 'Dave' Maltby, one of his flight commanders. (Imperial War museum TR 1122)
Wing Commander Guy Gibson at his desk with Squadron Leader D J H ‘Dave’ Maltby, one of his flight commanders. (Imperial War Museum TR 1122)

© 2014, Bryan R. Swopes

22 July 1933

Wiley Hardeman Post, 1898–1935. (Underwood & Underwood)

22 July 1933: Wiley Hardeman Post and his Lockheed Model 5C Vega, NR105W, Winnie Mae of Oklahoma, landed at Floyd Bennett Field, Long Island, New York. He had departed from there on 15 July and in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes, he flew 15,596 miles (25,099.33 kilometers), circling the Northern Hemisphere. He made 11 stops for fuel and rest. In 1931 he had flown approximately the same route with a navigator, Harold Gatty, aboard, but for this flight Post was by himself. This was the first solo around-the-world flight.

Wiley Post climbs out of the cockpit of his Lockheed Vega monoplane, Winnie Mae, after completing the first solo flight around the world at Floyd Bennet Field, Long Island, N.Y., midnight, July 22, 1933.  Wiley set a new record with the distance of 15,596 miles, 25,099 kilometer, in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes.  (AP Photo)
“Wiley Post climbs out of the cockpit of his Lockheed Vega monoplane, Winnie Mae, after completing the first solo flight around the world at Floyd Bennett Field, Long Island, N.Y., midnight, July 22, 1933. Wiley set a new record with the distance of 15,596 miles, 25,099 kilometer, in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes.” (AP Photo)

The Vega was a single-engine, high-wing monoplane was designed by John Knudsen (“Jack”) Northrop and Gerrard Vultee. Both men would later have their own aircraft companies. It was a very state-of-the-art aircraft for its time. It used a streamlined monocoque fuselage made of spiral strips of vertical grain spruce pressed into concrete molds and held together with glue. The wing and tail surfaces were fully cantilevered, requiring no bracing wires or struts to support them.

The Lockheed Model 5C Vega is 27 feet, 6 inches (8.382 meters) long with a wingspan of 41 feet (12.497 meters) and overall height of 8 feet, 2 inches (2.489 meters). Its empty weight is 2,595 pounds (1,177 kilograms) and gross weight is 4,500 pounds (2,041 kilograms). The airplane is powered by a 1,343.8-cubic-inch-displacement (22.01 liter) air-cooled, supercharged Pratt and Whitney Wasp R-1340C single-row 9-cylinder radial engine producing 500 horsepower. The airplane had a cruise speed of 165 miles per hour (265.5 kilometers per hour) and maximum speed of 185 miles per hour (297.7 kilometers per hour). The service ceiling was 15,000 feet (4,570 meters) and range in standard configuration was 725 miles (1,166.8 kilometers).

An estimated 50,000 spectators greet Wiley Post on his return to Floyd Bennett Field, 22 July 1933. Post is visible jut behind the trailing edge of the Vega's left wing. (Unattributed)
An estimated 50,000 spectators greeted Wiley Post on his return to Floyd Bennett Field, 22 July 1933. Post is visible just behind the trailing edge of the Vega’s left elevator. (Unattributed)

The techniques used to build the Vega were very influential in aircraft design. It also began Lockheed’s tradition of naming its airplanes after stars and other astronomical objects.

The Winnie Mae was built by Lockheed Aircraft Company at Burbank, California in 1930. It had been purchased by an Oklahoma oilman, F.C Hall, and named after his daughter, Winnie Mae of Oklahoma. Wiley Post flew the Winnie Mae for Hall, and later purchased the airplane. He used it to set several speed records and to compete in the National Air Races. NR105W was sold to the Smithsonian Institution by Mrs. Post in 1936, following Wiley Post’s death.

Wiley Post’s Lockheed Model 5C Vega, NR105W, Winnie Mae of Oklahoma, at the National Air and Space Museum. (Photo by Dane Penland, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution)

© 2014, Bryan R. Swopes

21 July 2011, 21:54:00 UTC

Atlantis touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility, 0554 EDT, 21 July 2011. (NASA)
Atlantis touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility, 0554 EDT, 21 July 2011. (NASA)

21 July 2011, 5:54:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time, (21:54:00 UTC) Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-135, landed at Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. Wheel stop was 5:57:54 a.m., EDT.

This 13-day mission had been the thirty-third flight for Atlantis. It had spent a total of 307 days in Earth orbit.

This brought to a close The Era of American Manned Space Flight which began 50 years, 2 months, 15 days, 20 hours, 23 minutes, 41 seconds earlier with the launch of Alan Shepard in Freedom 7, 5 May 1961, 09:34:13 EST.

The benefits of the NASA programs over these decades are immeasurable.

Space Shuttle Atlantis main wheel stop. (NASA)
Space Shuttle Atlantis main wheel stop. (NASA)

© 2014, Bryan R. Swopes

18 November 1923–21 July 1998

Alan Shepard suited up before the launch of Apollo 14. (NASA)
Alan Shepard suited up before the launch of Apollo 14. (NASA)

ALAN B. SHEPARD, JR. (REAR ADMIRAL, USN, RET.)
NASA ASTRONAUT (DECEASED)

PERSONAL DATA: Born November 18, 1923, in East Derry, New Hampshire. Died on July 21, 1998. His wife, Louise, died on August 25, 1998. They are survived by daughters Julie, Laura and Alice, and six grandchildren.

EDUCATION: Attended primary and secondary schools in East Derry and Derry, New Hampshire; received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1944, an Honorary Master of Arts degree from Dartmouth College in 1962, and Honorary Doctorate of Science from Miami University (Oxford, Ohio) in 1971, and an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities from Franklin Pierce College in 1972. Graduated Naval Test Pilot School in 1951; Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island in 1957.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member of the Rotary, the Kiwanis, the Mayflower Society, the Order of the Cincinnati, and the American Fighter Aces; honorary member, Board of Directors for the Houston School for Deaf Children, Director, National Space Institute, and Director, Los Angeles Ear Research Institute.

SPECIAL HONORS: Congressional Medal of Honor (Space); Awarded two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Navy Astronaut Wings, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Navy Distinguished Flying Cross; recipient of the Langley Medal (highest award of the Smithsonian Institution) on May 5, 1964, the Lambert Trophy, the Kinchloe Trophy, the Cabot Award, the Collier Trophy, the City of New York Gold Medal (1971), Achievement Award for 1971. Shepard was appointed by the President in July 1971 as a delegate to the 26th United Nations General Assembly and served through the entire assembly which lasted from September to December 1971.

EXPERIENCE: Shepard began his naval career, after graduation from Annapolis, on the destroyer COGSWELL, deployed in the pacific during World War II. He subsequently entered flight training at Corpus Christi, Texas, and Pensacola, Florida, and received his wings in 1947. His next assignment was with Fighter Squadron 42 at Norfolk, Virginia, and Jacksonville, Florida. He served several tours aboard aircraft carriers in the Mediterranean while with this squadron.

In 1950, he attended the United States Navy Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland. After graduation, he participated in flight test work which included high- altitude tests to obtain data on light at different altitudes and on a variety of air masses over the American continent; and test and development experiments of the Navy’s in-flight refueling system, carrier suitability trails of the F2H3 Banshee, and Navy trials of the first angled carrier deck. He was subsequently assigned to Fighter Squadron 193 at Moffett Field, California, a night fighter unit flying Banshee jets. As operations officer of this squadron, he made two tours to the Western pacific onboard the carrier ORISKANY.

He returned to Patuxent for a second tour of duty and engaged in flight testing the F3H Demon, F8U Crusader, F4D Skyray, and F11F Tigercat. He was also project test pilot on the F5D Skylancer, and his last five months at Patuxent were spent as an instructor in the Test Pilot School. He later attended the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island, and upon graduating in 1957 was subsequently assigned to the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, as aircraft readiness officer.

He has logged more than 8,000 hours flying time–3,700 hours in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Rear Admiral Shepard was one of the Mercury astronauts named by NASA in April 1959, and he holds the distinction of being the first American to journey into space. On May 5, 1961, in the Freedom 7 spacecraft, he was launched by a Redstone vehicle on a ballistic trajectory suborbital flight–a flight which carried him to an altitude of 116 statute miles and to a landing point 302 statute miles down the Atlantic Missile Range.

In 1963, he was designated Chief of the Astronaut Office with responsibility for monitoring the coordination, scheduling, and control of all activities involving NASA astronauts. This included monitoring the development and implementation of effective training programs to assure the flight readiness of available pilot/non-pilot personnel for assignment to crew positions on manned space flights; furnishing pilot evaluations applicable to the design, construction, and operations of spacecraft systems and related equipment; and providing qualitative scientific and engineering observations to facilitate overall mission planning, formulation of feasible operational procedures, and selection and conduct of specific experiments for each flight. He was restored to full flight status in May 1969, following corrective surgery for an inner ear disorder.

Shepard made his second space flight as spacecraft commander on Apollo 14, January 31 – February 9, 1971. He was accompanied on man’s third lunar landing mission by Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Maneuvering their lunar module, “Antares,” to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, Shepard and Mitchell subsequently deployed and activated various scientific equipment and experiments and collected almost 100 pounds of lunar samples for return to earth. Other Apollo 14 achievements included: first use of Mobile Equipment Transporter (MET); largest payload placed in lunar orbit; longest distance traversed on the lunar surface; largest payload returned from the lunar surface; longest lunar surface stay time (33 hours); longest lunar surface EVA (9 hours and 17 minutes); first use of shortened lunar orbit rendezvous techniques; first use of colored TV with new vidicon tube on lunar surface; and first extensive orbital science period conducted during CSM solo operations.

Rear Admiral Shepard has logged a total of 216 hours and 57 minutes in space, of which 9 hours and 17 minutes were spent in lunar surface EVA.

He resumed his duties as Chief of the Astronaut Office in June 1971 and served in this capacity until he retired from NASA and the Navy on August 1, 1974.

Shepard was in private business in Houston, Texas. He served as the President of the Mercury Seven Foundation, a non-profit organization which provides college science scholarships for deserving students.

The above is the official NASA Biography of Alan Shpard from the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center web site:

http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/shepard-alan.html

Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr., United States Navy.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr., United States Navy.

© 2014, Bryan R. Swopes